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基因研讨 英国洋蜡树对枯梢病抵挡力较强

工夫:2016-12-30 12:39 阅读:

Fears that almost all of Britain’s ash trees face annihilation may be exaggerated, according to a comprehensive genetic analysis of ash across the UK and Europe.

依据在英国和欧洲大陆对洋蜡树(ash tree)停止的片面遗传剖析,有关英国简直一切洋蜡树都面对灭尽的担忧能够被夸张了。

The study, carried out by a collaboration of 12 academic research teams and published in Nature, found that British trees are more likely than their continental counterparts to carry genes that protect against ash dieback, a fungal infection with the potential to wipe out 90 per cent of the European ash population.

这项研讨由12个学术研讨团队协同展开,后果宣布于《天然》(Nature)杂志。研讨发明,相比欧洲大陆的洋蜡树,英国的洋蜡树更有能够携带抵挡洋蜡树枯梢病(ash dieback)的基因;这是一种真菌熏染,有能够杀去世90%的欧洲洋蜡树种群。

“It’s an encouraging hint that things may not be as bad as we had feared,” said study leader Richard Buggs of Queen Mary University of London and Royal Botanic Gardens Kew.

“这是一个令人鼓动的音讯,标明事变能够不像我们此前担忧的那样蹩脚,”伦敦大学玛丽皇后学院(Queen Mary University of London)和皇家动物园邱园(Royal Botanic Gardens Kew)的研讨带头人理查德.巴格斯(Richard Buggs)表现。

“But these are preliminary indications and I wouldn’t want to see government policy on ash dieback shaped by the research until we have more evidence for the susceptibility of British trees.”

“但这些都是开端迹象,在我们有更多证据标明英国洋蜡树的易理性之前,我不想看到针对洋蜡树枯梢病的当局政策遭到此项研讨的影响。”

The encouraging news comes from the discovery of a link between reduced susceptibility to ash dieback and lower levels of plant chemicals called iridoid glycosides. Most British ash trees produce less of these compounds than continental ones, the genetic analysis suggests.

这一令人鼓动的音讯源于如许一个发明:较低的洋蜡树枯梢病易理性与较低程度的动物化学物质“环烯醚萜苷类”(iridoid glycosides)之间存在联系关系。遗传剖析好像标明,相比欧洲大陆的洋蜡树,少数英国洋蜡树天生的这类化合物较少。

Mr Buggs said the findings might explain why ash dieback has not spread as rapidly in the UK as feared in 2012 when the fungus first arrived from continental Europe. “Most of our early models were based on the Danish experience,” he said.

巴格斯表现,这些研讨后果能够表明了为什么2012年洋蜡树枯梢病从欧洲大陆传达至英国时,没有像人们担忧的那样疾速传达。“我们运用的少数初期模子都是基于丹麦的经历,”他说。

The disease causes trees to lose their leaves and eventually die. It has killed millions of plants in eastern and northern Europe since reaching Poland in 1992. Young trees die fast while mature ash often take several years to succumb.

这种疾病会招致洋蜡树落叶,终极繁茂而去世。自1992年传达至波兰以来,它已在东欧和北欧杀去世了数以百万计的洋蜡树。幼树很快殒命,而成年洋蜡树每每在几年后殒命。

“Plants use a vast range of chemicals to defend against fungal attack, and the primary objective [of the project] was to identify differences which could be used to screen young ash trees and choose the best ones for replanting,” said co-author Murray Grant of the University of Warwick. “Our findings underline the need for further research to ensure that we select ash trees resilient to present and future threats.”

“动物应用多种多样的化学物质来抵挡真菌侵袭,(该项目标)次要目的是辨认差别,以便挑选幼树,挑选出最佳的树停止补种,”研讨陈诉联名作者、华威大学(University of Warwick)的默里.格兰特(Murray Grant)表现。“我们的研讨后果突显了进一步研讨的需求,以确保我们挑选出对以后以致将来的要挟具有抵挡力的洋蜡树。”

While the genetic analysis is encouraging news for the fungal resistance of British ash, it may have a downside, too. Iridoid glycosides help to protect plants against insect pests, so low levels could make the British trees more vulnerable to the other big threat to European ash, a beetle called the emerald ash borer.

固然遗传剖析在英国洋蜡树的真菌抗性上带来了令人鼓动的音讯,但它也能够意味着一个缺点。环烯醚萜苷类有助于维护动物免受虫害,因而这类化合物的含量较低能够使英国洋蜡树在另一大要挟——一种被称为洋蜡窄吉丁(emerald ash borer)的甲虫——眼前更为软弱。

The beetle has devastated vast tracts of ash in North America and is spreading westward from Russia into Europe. Although emerald ash borer has not reached the UK, arboriculturists fear its arrival is just a matter of time.

这种甲虫在北美摧毁了少量洋蜡树,并正从俄罗斯向西分散,直扑欧洲。固然洋蜡窄吉丁尚未抵达英国,但树木种植者担忧,它们的到来只是一个工夫题目。